Blender 3D: Noob to Pro/3D Viewport penceresi

Vikikitap, özgür kütüphane

Blender 3B Viewport penceresi en çok vakit harcayacağınız yerdir. Blender 3B size dünyanızı nasıl göreceğinizin %100 kontrolünü verir. Buradaki bazı şeyler 3B Viewport'u nasıl kullanacağınızı öğretecektir.

Görüntüyü döndürmek[değiştir]

Burada 3 boyutlu sahnenizi etrafta döndürebileceksiniz, dönen düzlemleri gördüğünüz gibi. Öntanımlı cismin aslında bir küp olduğunu göreceksiniz, yarısı X-Y düzleminin üstünde, diğer yarısı altında yer almaktadır.

  • Make sure the 3D Viewport window is active by placing the mouse pointer anywhere inside of it.
  • Hold down the MMB (Middle Mouse Button) and drag the mouse from side to side and up and down.
  • Hold ALT+LMB for the same effect (on some Window-managers on Linux this won't work, it'll only move the Window. You can change this behavior in most cases in the Window Manager's settings)
  • To rotate so that "upwards" stays "upwards", use CTRL+ALT+SCROLL

NOTE: if you have your own setting for the MMB in mouse configuration, you must reset this to use the MMB as a real Middle Mouse Button (no Doubleclick or something else). Otherwise you must use the alternate ALT+LMB for the same effect.

  • If you're using a tablet pc or a graphics tablet, holding the ALT key while dragging your pen around will achieve the same effect.
  • The middle mouse button can be emulated on most Windows machines by simultaneously clicking the left and right mouse buttons. You'll need to set this up in the mouse settings in your Control Panel.

NOTE: for single button mouse users make sure that Emulate 3 Button Mouse is on in the View & Controls menu

It's a cube! Holding down the MMB is the quickest and easiest way to rotate your view and get a new perspective on things. Right now you're looking at the cube in what's known as Wireframe Mode. Pressing ZKEY (yes, on your keyboard, the 'Z' key) will toggle back and forth between Wireframe Mode and Solid Mode. Pressing NUM5 while NUM LOCK is on will toggle between Orthographic and Perspective (perspective looks more natural). This does not affect how your final product will appear, only the way you see your scene while you're creating it.

As you move the view around, you will see that there are three objects in your 3D scene by default:

Cisim ikonu Adı Açıklaması
Kamera The camera location and rotation will determine what you will see at render time. To see in your 3D viewport what the camera will see, activate that window by pressing NUM0 (remember the 0KEY is different). You may need to make sure NUM LOCK is on on your keyboard. To switch out of the camera view, drag the MMB.
Lamba Lamba basit bir ışık kaynağıdır. O "render" edilmeyecektir, ama ışık sahnenizi render etmenizi sağlayacaktır.
Küp Bu cisim "Render" edilecektir. Kamera küpün merkezini işaretleyecektir bundan dolayı bunu rendertime'da göreceksiniz.

Daha sonra bunların herbirini nasıl kullanacağınızı öğreneceksiniz.


[NOTE: If you are using a keyboard which doesn't have a numpad, e.g. a laptop, see laptop commands below.]

Holding the mouse over your 3D Viewport and pressing the NUM7, NUM1, and NUM3 buttons will bring you back to perfectly aligned top, front, and side views respectively. Pressing CTRL+NUM7, CTRL+NUM1, and CTRL+NUM3 will result in displaying the bottom, back, and other side views, respectively. Try each of these views, and watch the camera and light move around with respect to your new viewpoint (make sure your NUMLOCK is on. Otherwise, this will not work).

Similarly, holding the mouse over a viewport and pressing NUM2, NUM4, NUM6, and NUM8 will rotate (by 15 degrees, which is customizable in the user preferences under "View & Controls") the view down, left, right, and up respectively.

The object the viewport orbits around can be changed to a new object by first selecting it with the RMB and then pressing NUM. (the period key on the numpad) or NUM, (the comma key on the numpad) on some keyboard layouts.

[NOTE: selecting an object with the RMB will only work if your viewport is set to 'Object Mode'. Press the TAB key to toggle between 'Edit Mode' and 'Object Mode'.]

Again, remember in Blender that there is a big difference between the number keys on your numberpad and the number keys along the top of the keyboard. For example, NUM7 refers to the number 7 on the numberpad, while 7KEY refers to the number 7 that's above the YKEY and UKEY on the standard US keyboard. If you accidentally pressed 1KEY, 3KEY, or 7KEY during this step and it appears that everything disappeared, you have been changing the layer that you are viewing instead, press the 'key (backtick key -- on US keyboards, this is the key to the left of the 1KEY) to return to viewing all the layers, or press the 1KEY to get back to viewing layer 1 which should have been originally active.

[NOTE: the 1KEY through 0KEY and alt-1KEY through alt-0KEY switch layers. Hold shift to select more than one layer. `KEY selects all 20 layers. Layers will be covered later.]

Laptop kullanıcıları için: Num lock[değiştir]

As previously mentioned in this tutorial, recent laptops (some PC and all recent Mac) have a set of regular keys (from M in the lower left to 9 in the upper right) with additional markings corresponding to a regular numpad. This behavior can be toggled with F6 or the key labeled num lock; this may require pressing FN+numlock key, for example FN+F11 on many notebooks. If nothing else works, or as an alternative, you can temporarily activate the numpad behavior by holding the FN key (lower left corner of the keyboard) and using the keys as a numpad until you release FN. This allows convenient use of the numpad camera controls without interfering with the normal use of that set of keys. Also you may pull down the User Preferences window, at the top (menu bar window), choose the "System and OpenGL" button, and click on "Emulate Numpad" to use the normal numbers as if they were the number keys on the pad (NUM0 == 0KEY at that point).

For simply rotating around the object, press Alt+LMB and drag.

If you envision using your laptop for this kind of work, or indeed any work involving numeric data inputting, it may be worth investing in a USB Numeric Keypad, as Blender uses the numeric keypad quite a bit. Prices range from between $15 to $20 for a basic keypad.

Görüntüyü taşımak[değiştir]

To pan the view, you have your choice of alternatives:


—and move your mouse. Alternatively, if you have a scroll wheel you can use SHIFT+Scroll to pan up and down and CTRL+Scroll to pan left and right.

You also have choice of keyboard alternatives:

          CTRL+NUM8                NUM:      Up
CTRL+NUM4           CTRL+NUM6          Left      Right
          CTRL+NUM2                         Down

Panning is an important skill to master; try it now.

Note that you must press SHIFT before MMB, otherwise your view will rotate instead of panning.

Also note, that in Windows XP the simultaneous pressing of SHIFT+ALT is used to switch the keyboard layout (for example QWERTY becomes AZERTY and vice versa). So when you find your keyboard layout all messed up, press SHIFT+ALT again, until it fits.

Using SHIFT+MMB instead is recommended.

Görüntüyü yakınlaştırmak[değiştir]

Zooming in and out the view is also important. Again, Blender offers you several ways to do what you need to do:

  • If your mouse has a scroll wheel, scroll it.
  • CTRL+ALT+LMB and scroll up and down (not left or right)
  • NUM+ and NUM-

Try these all out. Can you see this being useful?

Profesyonel öneri[değiştir]

  • If you can, find a mouse with side buttons. Anything like Microsoft's Intellimouse, or Logitech's Mediaplay, that have back/forth buttons, will do. Map those buttons to the MMB. This makes camera control feel a LOT more intuitive (plus it frees up a finger).
  • Laptop users may also be able to configure the trackpad to act as a scroll wheel and middle mouse button while another mouse is plugged into the computer. Something like this can be achieved on a Mac by enabling "Use two fingers to scroll" in the Keyboard and Mouse preference pane.

Placing the 3D cursor[değiştir]

A Useful User Discussion

(Reader - I found that I would select the cube when left clicking on it in object mode, if the "Use 3d transform manipulator" button was enabled. To toggle this off, you click on the gray pointing hand in the 3d panel header, or (Ctrl Space).)

(Yet another reader: When you want the cursor back into the cube, just select the camera with RMB, put the cursor into the cube following the steps above, and re-select the cube with RMB.)

(Reader:- I've discovered it helps a lot if you are in Object Mode and not in Edit Mode. I wrote the following before discovering this:- The problem with this exercise, for me, is that left clicking on the cube selects the cube instead of moving the 3d cursor. If I click on the cube outside of its central white circle I can get the cursor to move there, but only to outside of this white circle, and even then this only works sometimes.)

(I failed at this until I had zoomed in close enough to the cube. When I was too far zoomed out I kept selecting the cube rather than creating an edit point. Another reader: I had the same problem and found it was because the cube was selected. I made sure I was in object mode, right clicked on the camera to select the camera instead of the cube, and I could then position the edit point in the cube. However, doing this messed up the next part of the tutorial because you cannot switch into edit mode with the camera selected! Perhaps the suggestion of trying to put the 3D cursor in the cube should be dropped as it raises too many questions at this stage.)

(Yet another reader: you can deselect all by pressing the AKEY or the select button in the 3D View)

(Reader-use wireframe mode works better to get the cursor in)

Reader - To get it back in the cube: 1. make sure you're in object mode 2. select the cube 3. Object -> Snap -> Cursor to selection (cursor refers to the 3D cursor here so it puts it right in the middle of the cube)

(Reader - I think it's an essential point to note that in order to place the cursor inside the cube, the cube must NOT be selected. AKEY was probably the best way to deselect the object.)

As with an ordinary text cursor (the vertical line that indicates where you type), the 3D cursor is the insertion point for new objects. It is represented as a red and white circle. It is just an 'editing point' in the 3D environment.

Click the LMB to the right of the cube, half-way between the edge of the window and the cube. The red and white circle (the 3D cursor) moves to where you clicked. Orbit the view again and notice that the 3D cursor marks a point in 3D space.

In any given rotational perspective, the set of possible 3D points where you can place the cursor is defined by the plane of your screen. If you're looking at the standard plane straight-on (meaning the standard plane is exactly parallel to your screen), you will place the cursor at the same height above or below the standard plane no matter where you click. Don't worry, you'll understand this point soon enough.

A more interesting experiment is to rotate the standard plane so the left end is farther away from you (and thus farther away from the plane of your screen) than the right. In this view, placing the cursor on the left will put it more toward the front of the plane, and placing it on the right will put it more toward the back.

Make sure the 3D View is in "Orthographic" mode by clicking "View" and selecting "Orthographic", and then try the following exercise: put the 3D cursor inside the camera (the pyramid-shaped object situated to the bottom left from the cube by default in top view). Be sure to view the scene from different angles to make sure the cursor is in fact inside. Now put the cursor back inside the cube. Make sure you are in object mode and that the '3d Transform Manipulator' is off. This ensures we can move the '3D Cursor' into the cube without selecting the cube by accident. To toggle the '3d Transform Manipulator', click the small index finger button in the 3d View Window/Bar, or use the keyboard, CTRL+SPACE. Toggle it a few times to get the hang of the difference.

If you're finding this difficult, try this: Press NUM7 to get to the top view and click on the position at which you want to place the 3D cursor. This will set two of the axes of the cursor precisely (X and Y), but the Z could be above or below the point you want. To fix this, press NUM1 to get to another view, and click again on the position to place the cursor at. With these two clicks, Blender will have all the 3 coordinates of the cursor position and you will have placed it exactly.

This exercise is important to get the feel for since it represents one of most fundamental actions involved when working in a 3D space from a 2D output device (your monitor). The most simple and straight-forward way in which to accomplish this exercise is as follows.

1. If you're not already in "Object mode", change to it. This can be changed through the pull down option in 3d viewport's window header bar or by hitting TAB to toggle between "Object mode" and "Edit mode".

2. It is also a good idea to make sure the "Use 3d transform manipulator" option is disabled. This should be represented by an icon, located on the 3d viewport's window header, that is shaped like a pointing hand. It can also be toggled by hitting CTRL+SPACE.

3. Hit NUM7 to change to top view. This can also be accomplished through the view menu.

4. Click between the cube and camera using the LMB.

5. Hit NUM1 to change to front view. You could optionally hit NUM3 to change to side view instead. It doesn't really matter which one (at least not for this exercise). The main point is that you need to be able to have 2 different views, that intersect each other, since we're working in a 3d space. For instance, viewing from top and then from bottom wouldn't be of much help to figuring how high up from the "standard plane" the 3d cursor is going to end up. Again, these views can also be selected through the view menu if you prefer that method.

6. Click between the cube and camera with LMB again.

7. Now you can use rotate the view around to see how it turned out.

For the part where you are to get your cursor into the middle of the cube, just follow steps 3 through 6 again. Except this time, you'll of course be LMB clicking inside the cube, instead of between camera and cube, during step 4 and step 6.

Nesneleri eklemek ve silmek[değiştir]

Make sure you are in Object Mode. If not, press TAB. When an object is selected, the TAB key switches between the edit and object modes. A status bar at the top-right of the user preferences window will indicate the current mode by displaying 'Ob' or 'Ed' depending on the currently toggled mode. Another way to check which view you are in is to check the bottom of the 3D view.

Also, remember to reactivate the '3d Transform Manipulator' if it's still toggled off from the previous step.

Click RMB (Cmd+LMB on Mac) on the cube to be sure it's selected. Press the XKEY or DELKEY to delete it. A window will prompt you to erase object. Click "Erase Selected."

Make sure you have your cursor in the center of the cube before deleting it. See the previous başlık (in the reader's notes) if you don't know how to do this.

The reason for having your cursor in the center of the cube is that any object you add to the scene will be located where your cursor is.

To add an object, use the Add menu located in the menubar above your 3D View window. Why not add a monkey? Choose Add > Mesh > Monkey. [If you prefer the monkey to be facing frontwards, make sure to be in FRONT view (numpad 1) before adding the mesh]

A new object will be added, and you will be in what's known as Edit Mode. Press TAB to get out of Edit Mode, then CKEY to center the screen on the cursor (where the monkey appeared). Press the ZKEY to toggle the 3D Viewport between solid and wireframe modes. Zoom in and out for a closer look (scroll the MMB, NUM+, CTRL+MMB, or ALT+CTRL+LMB).